fmt in Golang - formatting I/O

fmt in Golang - formatting I/O

fmt is one of the essential packages in Golang. fmt stands for "format." This package allows us to format strings, print output, and interact with the standard input/output streams.

In this blog post, we will explore the key functionalities of the fmt package.

you can import the package as shown:

import "fmt"

Printing to standard output

There are various functions available for printing such as fmt.Println , fmt.Print and fmt.Print

Println

This will print a line with a new line at the end

fmt.Println("Hello World")

output:

Hello, World!

Print

This will print but no newline at the end

output:

fmt.Print("Hello World")

Printf

This will format as per the format specifier and print without a newline at the end

fmt.Printf("My name is %s.\\n", name)

Here are some examples of format specifiers,

%s: string
%d: integer
%f: float
%t: boolean
%v: any value based on its type

Note: One of the noticeable differences between print and println is that print adds Spaces between operands and println doesn't.

for example,

fmt.Println("hello", "world")
fmt.Print("hello", "world")

the output will be:

hello world
helloworld

Formatting without printing

using Sprint you can format the string and store it in a variable without printing to standard output, some of the available options are:

Sprint

This will store the string in the given variable

value := fmt.Sprint("Hello World")

Sprintf

This will format the string as per the format specifier and store it in the given variable

value := fmt.Sprintf("My name is %s", name)

Sprintln

This will format the string as per the format specifier, add a new line at the end and store it in the given variable

value := fmt.Sprintln("My name is %s", name)

Reading input

For reading user input from the standard input or console, we can use Scanf , Scan , Scanln from the fmt package

Scan

this reads space-separated values until a whitespace is encountered

fmt.Print("Enter your name: ")
fmt.Scan(&name)

Scanln

this reads a line of text until a newline is encountered

fmt.Print("Enter your age: ")
fmt.Scanln(&age)

Scanf

this reads formatted input based on the format specifier

fmt.Print("Enter your age: ")
fmt.Scanf("%d", &age)

Writing to the specific output stream

using Fprint, we can format and write data to a specific output stream, such as a file or an io.Writer interface (for example, write formatted data to the response writer (http.ResponseWriter) when handling HTTP requests)

Fprint

fmt.Fprint(os.Stdout, "Hello world")

Fprintln

fmt.Fprintln(os.Stdout, "Hello world")

Fprintf

func testHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    message := "Hello World"
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "%s", message)
}

There is much more interesting stuff in fmt, but we will see that in upcoming blogs. Till then,

Happy Coding :)

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